Tuesday Tip #39: Six quick Python tricks 🎯

Hi Reader,

There's a gift for you somewhere in this email... just look for the 🎁 emoji!

👉 Tip #39: Six quick Python tricks

Here's what I'll cover below:

  1. Return the number of unique values
  2. Count values with Counter
  3. Better debugging with f-strings
  4. Return multiple values from a function
  5. Count while looping
  6. Create a dictionary with a comprehension

Let's get started! 👇

1️⃣ Return the number of unique values

Need to know the number of unique values in an iterable? Convert it to a set and check the length:

A set is a collection of values (like a list), except it can't contain any duplicate values:

You can use this trick with any iterable, including strings:

2️⃣ Count values with Counter

Need to know how many times each letter appears? Use the Counter class:

Counter objects act like dictionaries, which means that if we want to know how many times 'a' appears, we pass it the 'a' key:

Counters have useful methods like most_common, which returns the specified number of most common values:

3️⃣ Better debugging with f-strings

You've probably used f-strings for substitution:

But f-strings can also help with debugging!

Normally you might print out variables within a function to check that it's working as expected:

But with self-documenting expressions (new in Python 3.8), the output is more useful:

The secret is to end each replacement field with an equals sign!

4️⃣ Return multiple values from a function

Let's say that your function needs to return multiple values:

The function returns a tuple:

But if you want those return values as separate objects, you can use multiple assignment (also known as tuple unpacking):

5️⃣ Count while looping

Let's say that you need to loop through a list:

Sometimes you need to keep track of the index while looping. Don't do this:

Use enumerate instead, which keeps track of the index for you:

It actually generates a tuple, which we're unpacking into i and word!

6️⃣ Create a dictionary with a comprehension

List comprehensions are useful all over the place in Python:

By slightly tweaking the syntax, you can write a dictionary comprehension instead:

📈 Going further

Many of these tricks are taken from my online course, Python Essentials for Data Scientists:

  • The first half of the course will help you build a solid foundation in Python's data structures, operators, functions, control flow, and best practices.
  • The second half of the course will challenge you with a 7-part project, in which you'll practice everything you've learned plus dive deeper into intermediate Python topics.

🎁 Just for fun, I'm giving readers of Tuesday Tips a 25% discount on this course for the next week. Use code TUESDAY25 at checkout! 🎁

👋 Until next time

Did you like this week’s tip? Please send it to a friend or share this link on social. It really helps me out! 🙌

See you next Tuesday!

- Kevin

P.S. Uber's new "Save with Ads" option (parody) 😂

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