Hi Reader,

Thanks for sticking with me through all of those Black Friday emails! 😂

Seriously, though, I'm glad you're still here! 🙌

Now it's time to get back to the tips! 🎓

This is a collection of "multi-view" optical illusions generated by diffusion models (similar to DALL-E and Stable Diffusion). **I can't get over how good these are**, and I'd encourage you to spend a few minutes checking them out!

There's also a research paper explaining how these were constructed, as well as a Colab notebook you can use to create your own!

On Friday, I was working on a problem from the Python Problem-Solving Bootcamp that I talked about last week.

The problem boils down to this:

You have a text file containing 2000 numbers (one per line). If you walk through them in order, **how many times is the current number greater than the previous number?**

For example, if the first 8 numbers looked like this...

118, 121, 123, 125, 134, 132, 137, 135

...the answer would be **5**, since the value increases 5 times (and decreases 2 times) when walking through the numbers from left to right.

**How would YOU solve this problem with code?** Give it some thought, and then keep scrolling...

The first step is to read in the data. I used a context manager (the **with** block) to ensure that the file would automatically be closed.

Within the block, I used a list comprehension to read in the file line-by-line and convert each number (which was originally a string) into an integer:

We can slice the resulting list to view the first 8 elements, and also confirm the length of the list:

Now we're ready to solve the problem!

Here's the solution that I came up with:

How does this work?

- I set
**count**to zero, which tracks the number of times the value increases. - I set
**previous**to be the first element in the**nums**list. - The for loop iterates through
**nums**, starting with the second element since we don't need to compare the first element to itself. -
During each iteration:
- The
**count**is incremented if the**current**number is greater than the**previous**number. - The
**current**number becomes the**previous**number.

- The

The resulting **count** is 1553, which turns out to be correct.

I think this is a reasonable and readable solution. However, the solution notebook (provided by the bootcamp) reminded me of **three great Python tricks** I could have used to write a more elegant solution!

**I'll teach you those tricks below...** 👇

This solution uses **zip** to avoid manually assigning **current** to **previous** at the end of each **for** loop iteration:

If you're not familiar with zip, it aggregates the elements from multiple iterables and returns an iterator of tuples.

In simpler language, **zip** pairs together elements from different objects so that you can work with them at the same time.

In this case, we're pairing together the **nums** list (starting with element 0) and the **nums** list (starting with element 1), and then unpacking each pair of elements into **previous** and **current** during each iteration of the **for** loop.

This solution removes the conditional statement from the **for** loop:

How does this work?

- The
**current > previous**comparison returns a boolean value (either**True**or**False**) -
When you try to do math with a boolean value,
**True**gets converted to 1 and**False**gets converted to 0. Thus:**count += True**evaluates to**count += 1****count += False**evaluates to**count += 0**.

Finally, we can rewrite the solution even more concisely:

This converts the previous solution into a generator expression, which is like a list comprehension that is lazily evaluated.

Then, we pass the generator object to the **sum** function, which adds up all of the **True** values (by converting them to ones).

My Python course includes 9 sets of exercises and a 7-part project. It's great for beginners and intermediate users alike.

*Feel free to get in touch if you're wondering if it's right for you!*

**If you enjoyed this week’s tip, please forward it to a friend!** Takes only a few seconds, and it really helps me reach more people! 🙏

See you next Tuesday!

- Kevin

P.S. I'll give you 20 seconds to guess what this video is about (YouTube)

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